Sunday, June 14, 2020

Mycroft and Sherlock Holmes in the Dublin Steamer Passenger Lists.


“I shall be very happy to introduce you to two curiosities.” [GREE]

Every literary landscape has its pleasant vales, inspirational heights, sparse scrubland and downright treacherous ground for study. The Shakespearean scholar treads with special caution over the tricky terrain of the dramatist's life. It is a brave Sherlockian who ventures upon the Grimpen Mire of chronology with regard to the detective's cases.

While the simple order of publication is unquestionable, such is the characteristic narrative approach in Watson's chronicles that Chinese boxes of time are constructed of Milvertonian complexity. The reader is rarely sure just when the good doctor has sat down to write or how long had elapsed since the events narrated took place. Typically also, clients and others recount at length events (and third person accounts) compounding a generic timeline uncertainty arising from the unreliable memories of Watson and his literary agent, Conan Doyle. Rare are the moments of temporal clarity: it comes as a relief to know precisely where Sherlock Holmes was on the 2nd of August, 1914.

Hitherto, the canon has been the sole source of information about the activities of Sherlock Holmes. Now, however, (much as public records of obscure legal cases have shed light on Shakespeare) Victorian bureaucratic thoroughness may be thanked for references in Irish newspapers that confirm the presence of the Holmes brothers in Dublin on two occasions in the late 1890's.
To read more please click HERE to open pdf.


Sunday, May 5, 2019

The Adventure of the Abbey Troupe - some Devon Amateurs & their 1922 Sherlock Holmes Play.

                                      [Hartland Abbey, North Devon]

This is a post in celebration of Howard Ostrom's "A-Z of Sherlock Holmes Performers", Baker Street Babes (SEE) of all Sherlockian ages, and amateurs everywhere.

Poised to hit 5000 entries, the A-Z hosted by Ross. K Foad (HERE) chronicles many an amateur rubbing shoulders with professional interpretations of Conan Doyle's detective worldwide, on stage and in all media, ancient and modern. Too often, performances are lost to history, save for an inch or two of newsprint. Sometimes, even when that is all we have (as here), a little research can be surprisingly revealing. Not only do we find a new "Original Baker Street Babe" playing Sherlock Holmes, but a cast unexpectedly illustrious, acting for charity one September night in 1922.
[Hartland & West Country Chronicle 27 Sept 1922]

                              [North Devon Journal 21 Sept 1922]
The venue for the entertainment was not the spacious 1,100 seat Exeter cinema of that name but Bideford's tiny namesake, little more than a hall, converted in 1919 from the stables of the Heavitree Arms. Today, it is the Palladium Club, holding 150 people. Throughout the 1920's it was in regular use for concerts, whist drives, dances and the like, with occasional travelling cinema shows. On Thursday 14 September, 1922, the Abbey Troupe presented an evening of entertainment and dancing here in aid of Hartland Nursing Association.


Members of two families composed the core of this troupe that appears to have come together, suitably named, for this unique occasion, and it will pay to identify them before commenting on the centrepiece of that evening, their Sherlock Holmes play.

The Stucleys.

The participation of four Stucleys explains the troupe's name. Mrs. H. Stucley, who appears in two tableaux vivants, is the wife of Sir Hugh Nicholas Granville Stucley (1873-1956) of Alfreton Castle, Moreton & Hartland Abbey. (SEE). Little Bo-Peep is her 11 year old daughter, Priscilla (1911-1999) (SEE), joined in the Nut Tree item by her cousin, Lewis, who performs in the play alongside his brother, Peter. The boys were 12 and 13, sons of the (deceased) brother of Sir Hugh, Major Humphrey St. Leger Stucley (1877-1914) (SEE). 

Today, the 6th Baronet (also a Hugh Stucley) continues a Hartland tradition of hosting film and theatre arts at the Abbey. Summer theatre performances outdoors (SEE) hark back to Stucleys who staged Milton's "Comus" by searchlight in the grounds of Moreton Hall in 1932 and his "Paradise Lost" with a massive cast in Hartland's old church of St. Nectan three years later. The Abbey Estate has featured as a location for several films (SEE) most notably the BBC's "Sense and SensibilIty".

The Dashwoods & Family.

Where Austen's novel told of fictional Dashwoods, the Abbey Troupe offered real ones. The gentleman who regaled the audience between scene and costume changes with tales of East Africa was Major Arthur Paul Dashwood, OBE, of the Royal Engineers (1882-1964), the third son of the 6th Baronet Dashwood.
A seasoned traveller, he built the naval docks in Hong Kong Harbour and met the lady he married in July, 1919, after making the acquaintance of her mother and younger daughter on a return visit to England.
Like the Major and the Stucleys, Mrs. Dashwood was of aristocratic stock but her fame rests on her literary reputation, because Mrs. Paul Dashwood was the author often dubbed 'the second Jane Austen', whose pen name was E.M.Delafield (1890-1943). Her classic "Diary of a Provincial Lady" (1930) has never been out of print. Emil Otto Hoppé photographed her in 1922:

                        This is the face of 'Violet Stonin' 

It is thought her publisher suggested 'Delafield' for her publications to avoid confusion with her mother. In a reverse of Hardy's Tess Durbeyfield/D'Urbervilles, Edmeé Elizabeth Monica de la Pasture was anglicised.
The Dashwoods had gone out to the Malay States soon after their marriage but were back living in mid-Devon by January, 1922, largely at the behest of the budding novelist

                    [E. M. Delafield's Parents]

Delafield's mother was Mrs. Henry de la Pasture (1866-1945), the famous novelist and dramatist (SEE). She married Comte Henri Philip Ducarel de la Pasture, who died in 1908. They had two daughters who appeared together in the Abbey Troupe as 'Violet Stonin' and 'Sherlock Holmes'. In 1910, their mother remarried into the Clifford family. Sir Hugh Charles Clifford (1866-1941) was a colonial administrator (SEE), whose first wife died in 1907. In 1915 he was photographed with his second wife. The sitters include all three children from the first marriage AND the younger de la Pasture daughter, seven years before she played Sherlock Holmes (back row behind her father).

                   [Photo courtesy National Portrait Gallery]

 An Original Baker Street Babe.

Bettine Marie Yolande de la Pasture (1892-1976), known in the family as Yoé, was a medical student at Bristol University in 1922. There are news reports of her acting in several university drama club productions in the early twenties. Little is known of her ensuing life except that she became a doctor and married an Austrian called Friedl in Vienna in 1936.

                      [This is the face of Sherlock Holmes]


There are, as Holmes would say, some points of interest regarding the play that September evening, clearly a version of The Speckled Band. Given the limited cast, time and staging it seems likely the two 'acts' correspond to portions of Conan Doyle's play: 1) the Baker Street visits of Enid and her stepfather in Doyle's Act 2, scene 2 AND 2) the climactic Act 3, scene 2, in Enid's bedroom.

Doyle himself changed some of the short story's names for the stage version. Helen Stoner became Enid Stonor; the deceased Julia was re-christened Violet; Dr. Roylott re-emerges as Rylott. Deliberately or not (or a news reporter's error?), the Abbey Troupe field yet another variant cast: Mr. Raylett and Violet Stonin (for Helen/Enid). It may be suspected such name changes, along with the play's masking title, are made to minimize the attention of copyright holders. But I think it just as feasible the names are merely misremembered and the title aptly chosen, arising from Helen's account in the short story:

"I suddenly heard in the silence of the night the low whistle which had been the herald of her [Julia's] own death." [SPEC]

In 1922 the phrase "Death Whistle" had two additional connotations. Richard Marsh (1857-1915) (SEE) published a very popular thriller with that title in 1903. The literary de la Pastures would very likely have read it.

More darkly, the phrase conjured memories of a rumour rife during the recent war which alleged that German doctors carried a single-shot pistol, disguised as a working whistle on the battlefield with which they murdered their own wounded. Here is, for example, the Rugby Advertiser on 29 June, 1915:

Delafield would know this barbarous tale of a whistle sounding as prelude to the death of one's own kind, having been a voluntary aid nurse in Exeter from 1914.

There remains the unanswered question : who wrote the script for "The Death Whistle"? My money is on a combined sisterly act of creation. Perhaps somewhere in the archive of the Stucley family or that of E. M. Delafield there's a well-thumbed, unpublished MS of an amateur Sherlock Holmes play.

[FOR MORE on E. M. Delafield I recommend  the starcourse website HERE]



Thursday, January 17, 2019

Charles Augustus Milverton - the Wrath of Athene.

["Opposite (Milverton's desk) was a large bookcase, with a marble bust of Athene on the top"] Charles Augustus Milverton.

I have long cautioned myself that it is a capital mistake to read every Sherlock Holmes story through the same literary lens. Not all by any means may securely be pigeon-holed in the detective genre. To do so is to undervalue the work and limit response. These are the Adventures of a detective and, as such, varied and the more interesting for it. Search "The Adventure of the Engineer's Thumb" in vain for classic passages of brilliant deduction, impressive action and triumphant solution. Holmes is, throughout, more akin to the dog who did nothing in the night. 

Watson and Holmes are fully aware of this. The former prefaces the tale with what amounts to a signpost indicating how it should be read:
      (The problem of Mr. Hatherley's thumb) "was so strange in its inception and so dramatic in its details that it may be ... worthy of being placed upon record, even if it gave my friend fewer openings for those deductive methods of reasoning by which he achieved such remarkable results."  

Almost the entire narrative is taken up with Victor Hatherley's retrospective account of his ordeal and escape. The counterfeiters escape scot-free. Watson does not trouble to detail, still less dramatise, the detective's (failed) "ingenuity" in belated attempts to track down Stark & co. Why? Because this is not the central focus of the story. 

That we have read a cautionary tale (rather than a detective case) is patent in the story's final exchange. In reply to Hatherley's rueful comment: "I have lost my thumb and I have lost a fifty-guinea fee, and what have I gained?" Holmes, in a word, points the moral: "Experience". He can afford to make light of the matter, suggesting the hydraulic engineer may dine out on this story, because, in truth, it has been a lucky escape. The severed thumb haunts the imagination, symbolic of a far more gruesome outcome, fortuitously escaped. Thus, often, is the way with our apparently 'ordinary' lives. 

                                                  - 0 -
"Charles Augustus Milverton" is another adventure in which pure detection plays second violin to a more compelling theme. The treatment, however, could not be more different. The inaction of ENGR is replaced by near-comic hyperactivity on the part of Holmes & Watson - to the same vain end as they are rendered bystanders to a main event. 

Herein lies what I value in a recent essay on CHAS by Lyndsay Faye, whose interpretation rightly highlights what I below describe as The Wrath of Athene". Please read Faye's commentary HERE  as I'll proceed to draw attention to complementary, supportive details in Doyle's text.

I would draw the reader's attention to three matters: the serio-comic nature of our heroes' exertions with regard to Milverton, the theme of fate, and the creation that is the anonymous, female deus ex machina who kills "the worst man in London."

 1. "a creeping, shrinking sensation".

A trait central to Conan Doyle's chosen profession is his utter seriousness with regard to the craft of writing, whatever the genre. By virtue of this he is ready and able to re-calibrate Sherlock Holmes, his iconic recurrent character, in the service of a good story. If Holmes can 'fail' in 1891's "A Scandal in Bohemia", there is certainly no artistic risk in the spring of 1904: the"Return" stories are flying off the magazine stands, feeding a readership fresh from "The Hound of the Baskervilles" and William Gillette's stage success.Thus it is that the reader of CHAS is presented with a series of incidents and descriptions that subtly diminish the Great Detective.

The brushwork is melodramatic, with Dickensian echoes, throughout the opening scene, from Holmes' florid expressions of revulsion to a Milverton who looks like Mr. Pickwick but is all Quilp. And, as often with Dickens, we find ourselves in surreal, fairy tale country (as, more to the point, does an unusually emotional Holmes) where this "serpent", "The Evil One" threatens the Lady Eva, the most beautiful debutante of last season". We shall later recall wryly (as does Ms. Faye) condemnation here of "genteel ruffians who have gained the confidence and affection of trusting women" (Think Escott). 

There's no doubt that Milverton wins Round One. Holmes is discountenanced: "grey with anger and mortification". The encounter ends with a lame ploy to corner the blackmailer who is more than ready to resist.

We move now to "a wild, tempestuous evening, when the rain screamed and rattled against the windows". On such a Gothic night, Holmes seems back in his comfort zone (himself, if you will) as he gleefully regales his comrade-in-arms with the first example we shall encounter of his going to extraordinary lengths which will ultimately prove utterly irrelevant. The twin motives are clearly stated: the chivalrous defence of a lady by a gentleman and the restoration of Holmes' self-respect and reputation after Milverton "had, as you saw,the best of the first exchanges". Above all, it's a sporting duel mano a mano.

There is too, in this conversation, a ribbon of moral ambivalence (concerning the 'engagement' and breaking the law) that feels as surreal in its justifications as does the all-too professional burglary kit Holmes purrs over. The black silk masks they don to assault the towers of Appledore are as flimsily theatrical as any Hereditary King of Bohemia ever wore. And (let us not forget) 'Agatha' (the duped maid) means 'good woman' and Holmes did her wrong.

Even as Holmes is being consciously undermined, Conan Doyle ensures there's plenty of suspenseful action to hold attention. Witness the expert 'entry', the hushed narration as our knights penetrate to the inner sanctum. All is as planned. Clockwork. Doyle deliberately prolongs and minutely details, lays on Watson's reflections on chivalry with a trowel. 

All this will be undercut just as surely as von Bork's smugness in "His Last Bow". Twice the unexpected will yank the carpet from under this mock-heroic scene. The lesser, first, is, of course, the surprise apparition of a very awake Milverton. The pair take refuge behind the curtain and, effectively, for the rest of the story, are reduced to helpless spectators. That Holmes eventually manages to burn the stash of letters does not amount here to a redeemed reputation. That is, in this story, an irrelevance.  

For me, there is some comedy in the whisperings and hand-holding of our heroes, preparatory, I'd say (in much the way one finds in Shakespeare) for the contrasting, ultra-serious realism of the ensuing murder; a comedy resumed in the pair's flight and subsequent conversation with Lestrade. 

2. The Theme of Fate.

Superficially, the story's late twist parallels that of "A Scandal in Bohemia": in both, a woman acts independently beyond Holmes' knowledge or foresight. The difference with CHAS lies in its underlying notions of destiny. Holmes believes Lady Eva's destiny to be in his hands alone: "I must therefore abandon my client to her fate or I must play this last card." Moreover, the detective insists to Watson: "I can't get out of doing business with him." This belief informs and justifies every action taken henceforth. Thus playing fast and loose with Agatha's affections was "a necessary step", "You must play your cards as best you can". 

There's irony and wryness as Watson talks himself into abetting his friend's crime. Holmes may need the Doctor as "You can't tell what may happen". Meanwhile Holmes seems blithely resigned to this apparent path of destiny, welcoming "the chance of my lifetime" to flaunt his criminal efficiency. Most forebodingly (and comically) is Watson's involuntary reaction to the notion of burgling Milverton's house:

"As a flash of lightning in the night shows up in an instant every detail of a wide landscape, so at one glance I seemed to see every possible result of such an action - the detection, the capture, the honoured career ending in irreparable failure and disgrace, my friend himself lying at the mercy of the odious Milverton." 

Thus do we mortals so blindly imagine we see. Both Holmes and Watson are caught in illusions of their own making. Meanwhile, fate waits patiently.

One wonders for how long the bust of Athene has sat atop Milverton's bookcase and, indeed, why he placed it there. As it is, Athene is mute witness to all the blackmailer's secrets and all that unfolds this night. The goddess of Wisdom, of War, Courage, Inspiration and Justice (most relevantly) is located by Conan Doyle directly opposite Milverton's desk and "turning chair of shining red leather". It is a marble bust, with (therefore) as marble a heart as that Holmes attributes to Milverton. Implacable fate, I'd say. Biding time.

Let me be clear. It seems to me that Conan Doyle has spun false notions of destiny in the three men who dominate the narrative. Milverton thinks himself invulnerable; Holmes and Watson believe themselves to be the last court of chivalrous appeal. All place themselves, as a direct consequence, outside the law. Their respective illusions blind them even to imagine other worlds. We are in a Human Comedy. 

3. The Wrath of Athene.

"No interference on our part could have saved the man from his fate."

Watson's observation directly after "the avenger was gone" makes explicit the limitations both of Holmes' expert exertions and Milverton's cunning machinations. The Gordian knot of their macho entanglement is summarily cut by a woman wronged, with a righteous, implacable directness stunning in its awesome, blunt reality. In a moment, he is cut down to size: no longer "Augustus" she names him "Charles Milverton" in prelude to a death deserved. The narrator's language is now sober and unflinchingly realistic: "She...emptied barrel after barrel into Milverton's body". One last shot to finish him and then:
The woman looked at him intently and ground her heel into his upturned face".

This is not Lady Eva. Holmes would recognise her. The epilogue would be superfluous. No, at the time, the nemesis of Charles Augustus Milverton is an anonymous woman who gains entrance in disguise. That anonymity frees this literary creation to be as representative of womankind as the goddess Athene. She attests to this in the words Watson records:

"You will ruin no more lives as you ruined mine. You will wring no more hearts as you wrung mine. I will free the world of a poisonous thing. Take that, you hound, and that! - and that! - and that!"

As narrator, Watson knows the description he is to record in the concluding scene at a shop window but avoids any reference to the woman's regality as he chronicles her appearance in Milverton's study. She is "veiled" with "a mantle over her chin". "Every lithe inch" of this "tall, slim, dark woman" is "quivering with emotion". The veil removed, "It was a dark, handsome, clear-cut face...with a curved nose, strong, dark eyebrows shading hard, glittering eyes, and a straight, thin-lipped mouth set in a dangerous smile."

Athene personified. The bust come to life. Dea ex machina. And all wronged womankind behind the gathered resolve that pulls the trigger.

To Holmes and Watson some credit: their subsequent silence on the matter. As in some other cases, the great detective and the good doctor conspire to allow the guilty to go free, deemed more sinned against than sinning. Neither, furthermore, considers murdering Milverton even as a last card. Perhaps in time these naively chivalrous gentlemen would realise the logic here and learn from this experience that,if push comes to shove, Athene can, will and has the right to take care of herself. As Watson put it in the story's first paragraph: "the principal person concerned is now beyond the reach of human law". Such righteous wrath always is.

4. In Conclusion.

I like this illustration drawn by Sidney Paget for The Strand printing of CHAS.
The artist perceptively mirrors the reality I have noted above: that Holmes and Watson, despite all their good (and questionable) intentions, feverous activity, and moral ruminations, have in fact stood on the outside looking in.

I like to fancy that through those grimy panes they see not just one regal and stately lady but a vibrant gallery of past and future women standing tall.

[My sincere gratitude to Lyndsay Faye for an inspiring essay and to the Baker Street Babes for sharing it through their website.] 




Monday, December 31, 2018

Richard Greene's Sherlock Holmes - A Centennial Post at New Year, 2019.

In July, 1918, Basil Rathbone performed the act of bravery in the field that led to the award of a Military Cross that autumn. Meanwhile, in Plymouth, on the 25th of August, a baby was born. Two decades later the pair would meet on the film set of "The Hound of the Baskervilles".

For Rathbone it was his first outing (aged 47) as Sherlock Holmes. The film's titular star was 20th Century Fox's newest matinee idol (aged 20), Richard Marius Joseph Greene. The rest is history - almost.

[To read the full blog post please click HERE  to open pdf]


Saturday, August 4, 2018

A Case for Sherlock Holmes: In the Footsteps of John Webb [Spring, 1894].

This is the second of four posts about the actor who played Sherlock Holmes at Glasgow's Theatre Royal in 1894. The first (HERE) introduced John Webb (1864-1913), a noted member of George Conquest's company at the Surrey theatre, and indicated there is reason to identify him as the John Webb named in reviews of the Glasgow production. For reference, please see HERE for all reviews and notices, none of which make a connection that, nevertheless, may be inferred from the existence of a clear timeline for the Surrey Webb and absence of any trace of another professional of that name active in the period.

The annotated timeline below begins, with reason, on Easter Saturday, March 24, 1894, and charts all activities definitely attributable to the Surrey Webb until late July. It begins and ends with the same play and role.

MARCH 24 - APRIL 7 Arthur Shirley's "The Lightning's Flash" at the Surrey in the role of villain, Gordon Garville.
[April 9 George I. Hale heads north with a company to tour this play and will reach Glasgow the week before the Sherlock Holmes play. No one from the Surrey is in the new cast and Hale plays Gordon Garville until the end of a week's run at the Royal Princess, Glasgow: May 21-26.]

APRIL 9 - MAY 5 Harris & Pettitt's "A Life of Pleasure" at the Surrey in the role of evil genius, Captain Chandos.

On May 3 John Webb posts (for the second week) the following Professional Card in The Stage:
Webb is drawing the attention of managers. He seeks employment after the traditional close of the resident company's season at the Surrey on May 19 after Whitsuntide. He does not advertise again.

MAY 7 - MAY 12 Harold Whyte's "Fettered Lives" at the Surrey in the role of virtuous Joe Hazleton.

MAY 14 (Whit Monday) - MAY 19 Meritt & Conquest's "The Crimes of Paris" at the Surrey in the role that gave Webb his nickname 'the Surrey Villain': the Vicomte de Vismes.
                                     [The Stage, 10 May, 1894]
I imagine Webb then took a break before journeying to Scotland for rehearsal of the new play. However:

Setting aside the 'John Webb' named in reviews of the Glasgow Holmes play (May 28-June 2), the newspapers are silent on the Surrey Webb until:
JUNE 4 - JUNE 9 Arthur Shirley's "The Lightning's Flash" at Theatre Royal, Jarrow. This is the Hale tour, now heading back south with some cast changes. Hale is now the blinded hero, Stephen Merrick, John Webb is back as the villain, Gordon Garville and his wife, Nellie V. Warden has assumed the role of Selina Snack. This cast proceeds the following week to the Theatre Royal, North Shields and remains together until tour's end in late July.

On Thursday May 31, during the week of "Sherlock Holmes" in Glasgow, The Stage published the following Professional Card:

This professional communication to managers was inserted either by the Surrey's John Webb or by another actor with the same name. To accept the latter explanation would be to dismiss the rich circumstantial evidence in favour of the former, a known, reliable, respected and available actor in great demand. This trifle of an advertisement places the Surrey actor on stage as Holmes: for any manager reading it, there was only one John Webb, needing no further description. in addition, had Holmes been played by a local Scot, I'd expect mention of other roles in the Glasgow Herald and he'd likely have taken part on stage in the June 11 bumper benefit for F. C. Cowlard, acting manager of the Theatre Royal (he does not).

Webb knew the theatre was scheduled to close from June 4-10 to prepare the benefit. He needed work. It may well have been unnecessary to place the Professional Card as Hale was arguably still in Glasgow and Webb, surely, was already in rehearsal the previous week of Hale's play. 

Whichever, I'd say that at the end of May (Hale) and the beginning of May (Cordyce & Rogers) there were two theatrical managements who, realising John Webb of the Surrey was free, were doing a passable imitation of Moonraker's Hugo Drax savouring the thought of employing Jaws:

"Oh, yes, well, if you can get HIM, of course!"

In my next post I shall examine both the Glasgow production and its previous copyright performance in Hanley from the stand point of Charles Rogers and Henry Cordyce to illustrate why it was timely and wise for them to engage John Webb.


Saturday, July 28, 2018

A Case for Sherlock Holmes [Introduction]: John Webb, "the Surrey Villain".

In November, 1893, Charles Brookfield made well-documented history as the world's first actor to play Sherlock Holmes in the hour-long revue, "Under the Clock". By contrast, next to nothing is known of the first Holmes to feature in a full length play. Written by Charles Rogers, "Sherlock Holmes: A Psychological Drama in Five Acts", starred John Webb in six performances at Glasgow's Theatre Royal in the spring of 1894. Hitherto, less than a handful of contemporary reviews have provided a cast list and tantalisingly brief comments on performance, but no clue as to the lead actor or what he looked like.

An accidental find, the image above and the obituary it illustrates prompted new lines of fruitful research. This introduction heralds three forthcoming posts that present the argument and evidence that lead me to conclude John Webb , "the Surrey Villain", was also 'the Glasgow Hero'. Sherlock Holmes.

Read the full post which will open as a pdf: Click here

Tuesday, November 29, 2016

The A-Z of Sherlock Holmes Performers - A Special Tribute & Contribution.

"Silver Blaze" Granada TV.
Horse-whisperer: "Three thousand, you say?"
Silver Blaze: (with a wink) "From the horse's mouth, Mr Holmes."

In this case, the horse's mouth is Sherlockian media expert, Howard Ostrom of Florida, whose alphabetical index of the world's Sherlock Holmes performers since 1893 recently passed a milestone: 3000 entries. The A-Z may be viewed HERE on the "No Place Like Holmes" website hosted by Ross K. Foad and this special post is by way of tribute to an admirable endeavour. 

I am delighted to see both these gentlemen in the record. Ross has the distinction of being the first to play Sherlock Holmes in a web series and he has just returned from a self-imposed hiatus to trail NPLH series 6. In the stories, Holmes is, to my mind, revealed as more than a detective in his love of music and Ross comes across as a man of more (creative) parts too in the personal statement that introduces his trailer. I think this a salutary lesson for all Sherlockians. See his 27/11/2016 post HERE .

It's been a researcher's delight to play a minor role in the project. Behind every find is a tale that educates the detective in unpredictable ways and you come away with far more than another name. It's just like the pattern of most Sherlock Holmes stories: revelation of the solution never matches (for Holmes, Watson or the reader) the thrill of the chase.

Sherlock Holmes on the New World Stage: First Landfall.

1893 poster for the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition.
Just 29 years had elapsed since the end of the American Civil War when Arthur Conan Doyle embarked on his first lecture tour of a United States. In the first week he encountered two reminders of that conflict in the person of veteran Major James B Pond - a recipient of the Medal of Honor for heroism at Baxter Springs, organizer of the author's itinerary - and Bronson Howard's stage drama, "Shenandoah"

Under the management of a young Charles Frohman, General Philip Sheridan's 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign was brought to astonishingly realistic life on the cavernous stage of New York's Academy of Music, deploying 300 soldiers, sundry cannon and 40 horses to spectacular effect. The Sacramento Daily Union for 29 September carried a full description (scroll down column 1 HERE ). Conan Doyle saw it on October 2 and would unwittingly cross Frohman's path again in Chicago on the 14th when his future associate (with the Gillette "Sherlock Holmes") happened also to attend the Opera House to see a very different spectacle, the extravaganza "Aladdin Jr" with Sophie Harris in the title role. The production had premiered in June but elsewhere that October (in Elizabeth NJ and Providence RI) another, much more successful extravaganza was touring that, in a later incarnation, would, for the first time, bring Sherlock Holmes to the New World stage: "Hendrick Hudson; or, The Discovery of Columbus".

Alhambra, Chicago c 1907.
Chicago's Columbian Exposition opened belatedly the year after the quatercentenary it marked and was over by Doyle's arrival. Had he travelled there in the summer of '93 apart from visiting the strangely modest British pavilion, he may well have seized the opportunity to see the Houdini Brothers who performed in the Curio Hall that August (see HERE ).  
British Pavilion 1893
For entertainment he may well have been directed beyond the White City to the most popular show in town: "Hendrick Hudson" at the Alhambra, starring Corinne aka Little Corinne, the girl with the mandoline, in the extravaganza's title role.

Hendrick Hudson 1890-97.
The evolution of this historically impossible fantasy (Henry Hudson meets Christopher Columbus) is only one story in the Naked City of 19th century theatre but exemplifies survival through canny adaptation. For the Sherlockian it also illustrates elegantly the gradual assimilation of Holmes into American hearts and minds. Four distinct phases are apparent.

1890 (The failed Mark 1)
In an attempt to cash in on the current taste for females in 'trouser roles', Fay Templeton starred in the new musical burlesque by Robert Frazer and William Gill. It premiered at the 14th Street Theatre, New York on August 18, lasting just 16 performances. Panned as "merely twaddle and tights", the show went on the road, returning after some tinkering to the Park Theatre. Irretrievably poor, a fortnight that October saw its deserved demise.

1893-4 (The successful Mark 2)
By contrast, "Hendrick Hudson", newly and expertly adapted, hit the ground running during the World's Fair, arriving at The Academy in September after 75 performances in H R Jacobs' Chicago theatres, the Alhambra and Clark St. In early November it went on tour, playing essentially the Alhambra version for the next twelve months. The happily detailed 1893 programme for a November 3 performance at London, Ontario's Grand Opera House survives. Please view it HERE . There are features of special interest. In describing the Acts it is clear the original burlesque was revamped wholesale as an occasional celebration, site-specific to the World's Fair, accounting in part for the show's success. Just as apparent is the care taken to incorporate its star in a way that played to her strengths and confirmed her as the centrepiece. In this most lavishly extravagent of extravaganzas (think English pantomime on steroids), Corinne is at the fictional focal point as actress/singer and the main attraction as renowned mandolin player amid a miscellany of support vaudeville acts.

This was the work of one of the most astute businesswomen of the era, retired actress, Jennie Kimball, foster mother and business manager to Corinne.


 I shall tell their story in greater detail at a later date (such is its drama), restricting reference here to matters in hand - "Hendrick Hudson" ... and, in the fullness of time, Sherlock Holmes. 

Corinne, a child star like Fay Templeton, was 19 and much more established than the 25 year old Fay had been in 1890. Under the guiding hand of Jennie Kimball, 'Little Corinne' had captured the nation's heart. She often performed decked in a spangle of jewels, expensively dressed. The mandolin was the instrument of the day and she was groomed to great profit as its ultimate poster-girl.  

While her 'mother' lived, the pair grew ever more wealthy. Corinne was worked hard (without resentment) and shielded from frivolous distraction. So successful was "Hendrick Hudson" that Jennie bought for her daughter at Christmas the special high class $1,500 mandolin that had been displayed at the World's Fair (see column 1 HERE ). 

And there the trail might have ended for, when the show closed in November, 1894, Corinne's attention was turned to Paris. 

1896 (Hendrick Hudson Jr)

However, in January 1896 after a summer of mandolin and dance tuition in France, Corinne was back on the Los Angeles stage in "Hendrick Hudson Jr". The Los Angeles Herald details her European adventure and the revised show in column 2 HERE . Seemingly happier and more accomplished than ever 'Peerless Corinne' is lauded by the Sacramento Daily Union in February before and during the staging of "Hendrick Hudson Jr" at the Metropolitan. See HERE and HERE ).

Tragically, as the New York Times reported the very next day, Jennie died of pneumonia at 7 am on March 23, alone, in her special company box car in the Union Station of St Paul, Minn. She left Corinne an estate estimated at $600,000 and the thriving Kimball Opera Bouffe Company. I find no more performances of the revived show until the end of October, by which time it has again undergone significant change.

1896-7 (Hendrick Hudson Jr and Sherlock Holmes)

Now in sole charge of her own company, Corinne makes what I think is a tactical error, forgivable in one new to management and doubly so as her action brings Sherlock Holmes onto the American stage.

Hendrick Hudson cast 1893.
 The dramatis personae listed in the London Ontario programme included two deputy sheriffs, McCann and McFarlan. Autumn 1896 discarded these to make room for two of the three outstanding vaudeville comedians engaged by Corinne. By May 1897 when she quit a new show "Excelsior Jr" featuring the same trio, Corinne appears to have realised belatedly her stardom was effectively paled, eclipsed by greater comedic talents. Joe Cawthorne, John Page and Neil McNeil would not, I think, have been engaged by her late mother. Even as deputy sheriffs. Let alone (as if to underline their thespian dominance) endow John Page with the name 'Sherlock', Neil McNeil with 'Holmes' and give them the stage.

Chronology of performances (including casting evidence) October 1896-February 1897 with links:

Oct 29-31 Denver Broadway: HERE
Nov 6-7    Sacramento Metropolitan: column 3 HERE and HERE
Nov 9-16  San Francisco Columbia: block ad far right HERE and page foot HERE
Nov 27-8  Los Angeles Theatre: HERE & HERE & HERE
Dec 4       Roseburg Opera House: HERE and HERE 
Dec 10     New Columbia Opera House: HERE 
Dec 18-20 Seattle: HERE and HERE

from the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Dec 19, 1896.
 Christmas 1896 Anaconda Opera House: HERE
 February 7 1897 Ninth St Theatre, Kansas City: HERE

John Page, Neil McNeil and Sherlock Holmes.

The reader will have learned something of these half-forgotten comedians from the newspapers cited. I shall return to this post in a few days to add a pdf file listing other productions in which they figured. As yet I have found no image of any production of "Hendrick Hudson" nor of John (aka Johnnie) Page.

Neil McNeil  (sometimes McNeill) is the better documented. Here he is in the title role of "Simple Simon Simple" (1905):

AND (on the left of the photograph) as April Fool in 1910's "The Land of Nod" :

  Neil McNeil already appears in the A-Z as Kid Connor (Watson) in "The Red Mill" (1909) with Walter S Wills as Con Kidder (Holmes). The article HERE refers to "the Sherlock Holmes business" AND, ironically, precedes a piece about Ferris Hartman, also listed in the A-Z for "The Man in the Moon" (1899). 

Hitherto, Hartman was thought to be the first American actor to play Sherlock Holmes. That honour is surely shared equally by Page and McNeil, with the latter additionally America's first Holmes AND Watson performer.

I began this post with a poster. Take a closer look. At the man holding the Union Jack. Is he meant to be Sherlock Holmes? Or a typical Englishman? It hardly matters; they are soon indistinguishable. Holmes has made his first landfall.